CDR – also known as "carbon removals" – can be divided into the three main groups: biological, technological and geochemical processes.
Various approaches can remove CO2 from the atmosphere. Source: FOEN representation based on Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change (MCC).
Some examples of biological CDR, also known as natural sinks or nature-based solutions (NbS), include:
- Afforestation, i.e. large-scale planting of trees, and sustainable forest management which store carbon in soil and biomass.
- Adapted land management to increase and permanently bind carbon from atmospheric CO2 in the soil, for example by ploughing-under crop residues or reduced tillage.
- Pyrolysis of biomass to form charcoal (biochar) that keeps carbon in the soil – or to be exact, in the charcoal – for many years.
- Restoration of reefs and seagrass in shallow ocean areas to efficiently store carbon dioxide.
Examples of technological CDR are:
- Removing CO2 directly from the exhaust gases of industrial processes and storing it elsewhere, e.g. underground (Direct Air Capture with Carbon Storage, "DACCS").
- Bioenergy utilisation in combination with carbon capture and storage, meaning burning biomass in power plants and immediately capturing the CO2 underground (Bio-Energy with Carbon Capture and Storage, "BECCS"). This process combines biological and technological CDR.
Geochemical CDR includes measures such as:
- Enhanced weathering
- Increasing ocean productivity
Technological and geochemical processes for carbon dioxide capture, use and storage (CCUS) are presently being developed and tested. However, as for biological CDR projects, any adverse side effects for ecological and social sustainability must be taken into account.
While myclimate sees a high potential and the tremendous cost-benefit ratio for biological processes, i.e. projects based on soil-based negative emissions, such as reforestation, soil management, and the restoration of coastal wetlands and peatlands, we also support innovation into technological and geochemical processes to capture carbon. These technologies need to be developed to complement other CDR approaches to achieve net zero emissions. The longer global climate action lags behind the targets, the higher the negative emissions need to be to meet our climate change goals.
- FOEN 2020. Negative emissions technologies.
- IPCC 2018 Special Report 15; Mark Jacobsen (Energy and Environmental Science 2, 2009)
- EASAC 2018. Negative emission technologies: What role in meeting Paris Agreement targets? Policy report 35.
- IPCC 2019. Special Report on Climate Change and Land.
- IPCC 2018. Special Report 15. Global Warming of 1.5°C.
- Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change (MCC) 2016. Vorsicht beim Wetten auf Negative Emissionen. MCC-Kurzdossier Nr. 2.
- Stiftung Risiko-Dialog 2019. The role of atmospheric carbon dioxide removal in Swiss Climate policy.
You can find further exciting information on the subject of climate change and climate protection in our climate booklet